Ongoing pH testing to confirm nasogastric tube position before feeding to reduce the risk of adverse outcomes in adult and paediatric patients: A systematic literature review

      Highlights

      • Limited high quality low bias literature exists for ongoing pH testing to confirm NGT position before feeding.
      • Ongoing pH testing may prevent use of a misplaced NGT but lead to excess X-rays, nutrition and/or missed medication.
      • Continuous feeding and the use of antacids increases a pH above the desired cut off.
      • Ongoing pH testing is not evidence based and requires more research to ensure patient risks are minimised.

      Summary

      Background & aims

      There is no agreed gold standard method to confirm nasogastric tube position before every use. However, many global guidelines recommend testing the pH of gastric aspirates obtained from an NGT before each use. This study aims to determine whether ongoing pH testing has been shown to reduce adverse events. Secondary aims are to determine how frequently aspirates can be obtained, and how often pH correctly confirms ongoing NGT tip position.

      Methods

      Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed and protocol was published on PROSPERO. Keywords were used to search PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL, CINAHL and MEDLINE. Article assessment for inclusion was completed by two independent authors and risk of bias was assessed using ROBINS-I.

      Results

      The systematic search and review methodology was followed due to wide variety and high risk of bias in the included studies. One full study and five abstracts met inclusion criteria for the primary aim. The full article contained one instance where pH testing and external NGT length together identified a misplaced NGT. The abstracts identified missed or delayed feeds and medications, and frequent unnecessary X-rays, as negative outcomes of ongoing pH testing. Ten full studies and one conference abstract addressed the secondary aims, but the studies varied widely which prevented meta-analysis and made it difficult to draw conclusions.

      Conclusions

      This review confirmed that ongoing pH testing is based on expert opinion due to limited evidence. More primary research is required to determine the clinical impact of ongoing pH testing to confirm NGT position.

      Keywords

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