Habitual consumption of instant coffee is favorably associated with arterial stiffness but not with atheromatosis

  • Christiana Tsirimiagkou
    Affiliations
    Cardiovascular Prevention & Research Unit, Clinic & Laboratory of Pathophysiology, Department of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece

    Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Science and Education, Harokopio University of Athens, Greece
    Search for articles by this author
  • Eirini D. Basdeki
    Affiliations
    Cardiovascular Prevention & Research Unit, Clinic & Laboratory of Pathophysiology, Department of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece

    Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Science and Education, Harokopio University of Athens, Greece
    Search for articles by this author
  • Anastasia Areti Kyriazopoulou Korovesi
    Affiliations
    Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Science and Education, Harokopio University of Athens, Greece
    Search for articles by this author
  • Christina Chairistanidou
    Affiliations
    Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Science and Education, Harokopio University of Athens, Greece
    Search for articles by this author
  • Dalila Said Ouamer
    Affiliations
    Cardiology Division, University Hospital Mustapha, Algiers, Algeria
    Search for articles by this author
  • Antonios Argyris
    Affiliations
    Cardiovascular Prevention & Research Unit, Clinic & Laboratory of Pathophysiology, Department of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece
    Search for articles by this author
  • Petros P. Sfikakis
    Affiliations
    1st Department of Propaedeutic Internal Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece
    Search for articles by this author
  • Kalliopi Karatzi
    Affiliations
    Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, Greece

    Hellenic Foundation for Cardiovascular Health and Nutrition, Athens, Greece
    Search for articles by this author
  • Athanase D. Protogerou
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author. Cardiovascular Prevention & Research Unit, Clinic & Laboratory of Pathophysiology, Department of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 75, Mikras Asias Street, Building 16, 3rd floor, room 8, 115 27, Athens, Greece. Fax: +0030 210 746 2566.
    Affiliations
    Cardiovascular Prevention & Research Unit, Clinic & Laboratory of Pathophysiology, Department of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece

    Hellenic Foundation for Cardiovascular Health and Nutrition, Athens, Greece
    Search for articles by this author

      Summary

      Objective

      Epidemiological data suggest that moderate habitual coffee consumption associates with lower cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk; however scarce data exist regarding the association of coffee with subclinical vascular disease (SVD). We aimed at investigating the above association with habitual instant coffee consumption - a widely consumed coffee in Greece–in high CVD risk but free of established CVD adults.

      Research methods & procedures

      In a cross-sectional design study we measured: (i) two 24 h dietary recalls to assess coffee consumption, (ii) arterial stiffness, by carotid to femoral pulse wave velocity - (PWV) and carotid compliance, arterial remodeling by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), pressure wave reflection by augmentation index (AIx) and atheromatosis by carotid plaques.

      Results

      In 1041 participants (55.6% females, 53.6 ± 14.0 years), 30% habitually consumed instant coffee (0.53 ± 1.15 cups/day). Consumption of instant coffee was inversely associated with systolic blood pressure (β = −1.19, p = 0.007), AIx (β = −0.71, p = 0.043), PWV (β = −0.22, p = 0.000) and IMT (β = −0.01, p = 0.025), but these associations lost their significance after multiple adjustments for confounders. Instant coffee consumption was positively associated with carotid compliance independent from all possible confounders (β = 0.005, p = 0.003).

      Conclusion

      Habitual moderate instant coffee consumption is inversely associated with arterial stiffening and potential with arterial remodeling. These favorable vascular associations offer a potential pathophysiological link between habitual coffee consumption and lower incidence of CVD. Future studies are needed to examine the long-term effects of habitual instant coffee consumption on vascular structure and function.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      References

        • WHO
        Cardiovascular diseases key facts.
        2017
        • Vlachopoulos C.
        • Xaplanteris P.
        • Aboyans V.
        • Brodmann M.
        • Cifkova R.
        • Cosentino F.
        • et al.
        The role of vascular biomarkers for primary and secondary prevention. A position paper from the European Society of Cardiology working group on peripheral circulation: endorsed by the association for research into arterial structure and physiology (artery) society.
        Atherosclerosis. 2015; 241: 507-532
        • Vlachopoulos C.
        • Aznaouridis K.
        • O'Rourke M.F.
        • Safar M.E.
        • Baou K.
        • Stefanadis C.
        Prediction of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality with central haemodynamics: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Eur Heart J. 2010; 31: 1865-1871
        • Nambi V.
        • Chambless L.
        • He M.
        • Folsom A.R.
        • Mosley T.
        • Boerwinkle E.
        • et al.
        Common carotid artery intima-media thickness is as good as carotid intima-media thickness of all carotid artery segments in improving prediction of coronary heart disease risk in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.
        Eur Heart J. 2012; 33: 183-190
        • EFSA
        Scientific opinion on the safety of caffeine.
        EFSA J. 2015; 13: 4102
        • Kim Y.
        • Je Y.
        • Giovannucci E.
        Coffee consumption and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: a meta-analysis by potential modifiers.
        Euro J Epidemiol. 2019; 34: 731-752
        • Grosso G.
        • Micek A.
        • Godos J.
        • Sciacca S.
        • Pajak A.
        • Martinez-Gonzalez M.A.
        • et al.
        Coffee consumption and risk of all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality in smokers and non-smokers: a dose-response meta-analysis.
        Euro J Epidemiol. 2016; 31: 1191-1205
        • van Dam R.M.
        • Hu F.B.
        • Willett W.C.
        Coffee, caffeine, and health.
        N Engl J Med. 2020; 383: 369-378
        • Poole R.
        • Kennedy O.J.
        • Roderick P.
        • Fallowfield J.A.
        • Hayes P.C.
        • Parkes J.
        Coffee consumption and health: umbrella review of meta-analyses of multiple health outcomes.
        Bmj. 2017; 359: j5024
        • O'Keefe J.H.
        • DiNicolantonio J.J.
        • Lavie C.J.
        Coffee for cardioprotection and longevity.
        Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2018; 61: 38-42
        • Pitsavos C.
        • Panagiotakos D.B.
        • Chrysohoou C.
        • Stefanadis C.
        Epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in Greece: aims, design and baseline characteristics of the ATTICA study.
        BMC Publ Health. 2003; 3: 32
        • Siasos G.
        • Oikonomou E.
        • Chrysohoou C.
        • Tousoulis D.
        • Panagiotakos D.
        • Zaromitidou M.
        • et al.
        Consumption of a boiled Greek type of coffee is associated with improved endothelial function: the Ikaria study.
        Vasc Med. 2013; 18: 55-62
        • Karatzis E.
        • Papaioannou T.G.
        • Aznaouridis K.
        • Karatzi K.
        • Stamatelopoulos K.
        • Zampelas A.
        • et al.
        Acute effects of caffeine on blood pressure and wave reflections in healthy subjects: should we consider monitoring central blood pressure?.
        Int J Cardiol. 2005; 98: 425-430
        • Kim H.J.
        • Cho S.
        • Jacobs Jr., D.R.
        • Park K.
        Instant coffee consumption may be associated with higher risk of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults.
        Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2014; 106: 145-153
        • Lee P.M.Y.
        • Chan W.C.
        • Kwok C.C.
        • Wu C.
        • Law S.H.
        • Tsang K.H.
        • et al.
        Associations between coffee products and breast cancer risk: a case-control study in Hong Kong Chinese women.
        Sci Rep. 2019; 9: 12684
        • Miyake Y.
        • Kono S.
        • Nishiwaki M.
        • Hamada H.
        • Nishikawa H.
        • Koga H.
        • et al.
        Relationship of coffee consumption with serum lipids and lipoproteins in Japanese men.
        Ann Epidemiol. 1999; 9: 121-126
        • van Dam R.M.
        • Willett W.C.
        • Manson J.E.
        • Hu F.B.
        Coffee, caffeine, and risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study in younger and middle-aged U.S. women.
        Diabetes Care. 2006; 29: 398-403
        • Tran K.T.
        • Coleman H.G.
        • McMenamin U.C.
        • Cardwell C.R.
        Coffee consumption by type and risk of digestive cancer: a large prospective cohort study.
        Br J Cancer. 2019; 120: 1059-1066
        • Stamatelopoulos K.
        • Karatzi K.
        • Sidossis L.S.
        Noninvasive methods for assessing early markers of atherosclerosis: the role of body composition and nutrition.
        Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2009; 12: 467-473
        • Ioakeimidis N.
        • Tzifos V.
        • Vlachopoulos C.
        • Terentes-Printzios D.
        • Georgakopoulos C.
        • Tousoulis D.
        Acute effect of coffee on aortic stiffness and wave reflections in healthy individuals: differential effect according to habitual consumption.
        Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2018; 69: 870-881
        • Vlachopoulos C.
        • Hirata K.
        • Stefanadis C.
        • Toutouzas P.
        • O'Rourke M.F.
        Caffeine increases aortic stiffness in hypertensive patients.
        Am J Hypertens. 2003; 16: 63-66
        • Vlachopoulos C.
        • Hirata K.
        • O'Rourke M.F.
        Effect of caffeine on aortic elastic properties and wave reflection.
        J Hypertens. 2003; 21: 563-570
        • Mahmud A.
        • Feely J.
        Acute effect of caffeine on arterial stiffness and aortic pressure waveform.
        Hypertension. 2001; 38: 227-231
        • Choi Y.
        • Chang Y.
        • Ryu S.
        • Cho J.
        • Rampal S.
        • Zhang Y.
        • et al.
        Coffee consumption and coronary artery calcium in young and middle-aged asymptomatic adults.
        Heart. 2015; 101: 686-691
        • Miller P.E.
        • Zhao D.
        • Frazier-Wood A.C.
        • Michos E.D.
        • Averill M.
        • Sandfort V.
        • et al.
        Associations of coffee, tea, and caffeine intake with coronary artery calcification and cardiovascular events.
        Am J Med. 2017; 130: 188-197 e5
        • Wang D.
        • Karvonen-Gutierrez C.A.
        • Jackson E.A.
        • Elliott M.R.
        • Appelhans B.M.
        • Barinas-Mitchell E.
        • et al.
        Prospective associations between beverage intake during the midlife and subclinical carotid atherosclerosis: the Study of Women's Health across the Nation.
        PloS One. 2019; 14e0219301
        • Patel Y.R.
        • Gadiraju T.V.
        • Ellison R.C.
        • Hunt S.C.
        • Carr J.J.
        • Heiss G.
        • et al.
        Coffee consumption and calcified atherosclerotic plaques in the coronary arteries: the NHLBI Family Heart Study.
        Clin Nutr ESPEN. 2017; 17: 18-21
        • Simon T.G.
        • Trejo M.E.P.
        • Zeb I.
        • Frazier-Wood A.C.
        • McClelland R.L.
        • Chung R.T.
        • et al.
        Coffee consumption is not associated with prevalent subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) or the risk of CVD events, in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: results from the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.
        Metab Clin Exp. 2017; 75: 1-5
        • Reis J.P.
        • Loria C.M.
        • Steffen L.M.
        • Zhou X.
        • van Horn L.
        • Siscovick D.S.
        • et al.
        Coffee, decaffeinated coffee, caffeine, and tea consumption in young adulthood and atherosclerosis later in life: the CARDIA study.
        Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010; 30: 2059-2066
        • Roman M.J.
        • Moeller E.
        • Davis A.
        • Paget S.A.
        • Crow M.K.
        • Lockshin M.D.
        • et al.
        Preclinical carotid atherosclerosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
        Ann Intern Med. 2006; 144: 249-256
        • Trichopoulou A.
        Composition tables of simple and composite foods Athens, Greece.
        1992
        • Ponte B.
        • Pruijm M.
        • Ackermann D.
        • Ehret G.
        • Ansermot N.
        • Staessen J.A.
        • et al.
        Associations of urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolites with arterial stiffness in a large population-based study.
        Mayo Clin Proc. 2018; 93: 586-596
        • Uemura H.
        • Katsuura-Kamano S.
        • Yamaguchi M.
        • Nakamoto M.
        • Hiyoshi M.
        • Arisawa K.
        Consumption of coffee, not green tea, is inversely associated with arterial stiffness in Japanese men.
        Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013; 67: 1109-1114
        • Waring W.S.
        • Goudsmit J.
        • Marwick J.
        • Webb D.J.
        • Maxwell S.R.
        Acute caffeine intake influences central more than peripheral blood pressure in young adults.
        Am J Hypertens. 2003; 16: 919-924
        • Echeverri D.
        • Pizano A.
        • Montes F.R.
        • Forcada P.
        Acute effect of coffee consumption on arterial stiffness, evaluated using an oscillometric method.
        Arter Res. 2017; : 16-32
        • Washio T.
        • Sasaki H.
        • Ogoh S.
        Acute impact of drinking coffee on the cerebral and systemic vasculature.
        Physiolog Rep. 2017; 5e13288
        • Phan J.K.
        • Shah S.A.
        Effect of caffeinated versus noncaffeinated energy drinks on central blood pressures.
        Pharmacotherapy. 2014; 34: 555-560
        • Ochiai R.
        • Jokura H.
        • Suzuki A.
        • Tokimitsu I.
        • Ohishi M.
        • Komai N.
        • et al.
        Green coffee bean extract improves human vasoreactivity.
        Hypertens Res : Off J Japan Soc Hypertens. 2004; 27: 731-737
        • Suzuki A.
        • Nomura T.
        • Jokura H.
        • Kitamura N.
        • Saiki A.
        • Fujii A.
        Chlorogenic acid-enriched green coffee bean extract affects arterial stiffness assessed by the cardio-ankle vascular index in healthy men: a pilot study.
        Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2019; 70: 901-908
        • Liu L.
        • Nagai I.
        • Gao Y.
        • Matsushima Y.
        • Kawai Y.
        • Sayama K.
        Effects of catechins and caffeine on the development of atherosclerosis in mice.
        Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2017; 81: 1948-1955
        • Sakamoto W.
        • Isomura H.
        • Fujie K.
        • Takahashi K.
        • Nakao K.
        • Izumi H.
        Relationship of coffee consumption with risk factors of atherosclerosis in rats.
        Ann Nutr Metabol. 2005; 49: 149-154
        • Papaioannou T.G.
        • Karatzi K.
        • Karatzis E.
        • Papamichael C.
        • Lekakis J.P.
        Acute effects of caffeine on arterial stiffness, wave reflections, and central aortic pressures.
        Am J Hypertens. 2005; 18: 129-136
        • Pase M.P.
        • Grima N.A.
        • Sarris J.
        The effects of dietary and nutrient interventions on arterial stiffness: a systematic review.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2011; 93: 446-454
        • Azad B.J.
        • Heshmati J.
        • Daneshzad E.
        • Palmowski A.
        Effects of coffee consumption on arterial stiffness and endothelial function: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.
        Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2020; : 1-14
        • van Sloten T.T.
        • Schram M.T.
        • van den Hurk K.
        • Dekker J.M.
        • Nijpels G.
        • Henry R.M.
        • et al.
        Local stiffness of the carotid and femoral artery is associated with incident cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality: the Hoorn study.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014; 63: 1739-1747