Weight loss is a critical factor to reduce inflammation

      Highlights

      • Weight loss activates the reduction in the plasma level of inflammatory markers due to the metabolic adaptation.
      • Calorie restricted diet improves the mitochondrial biogenesis and function through the activation of AMPK, PGC-1a.
      • The reduction in body fat changes the gene expression decreasing in the mRNA profile of cytokines.

      Summary

      Background

      Chronic inflammation is a process sustained by the augmentation of circulating cytokines level and C-reactive protein (CRP). Adipocytes and adipose tissue infiltration with inflammatory cells, are an important source of adipokines production, and their expansion due to overnutrition is responsible for increased in inflammation. The reduction of body fat following both controlled diets or gastric surgery can be favorable in the reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

      Methods

      A systematic literature search performed using PubMed, Google Scholar and Cochrane Library database screened for clinical and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using the combination of the following keywords: “weight loss, inflammation,” “restricted diet, anti-inflammatory effect.” Studies including diet intervention, weight loss after gastric surgery have been included. Multidisciplinary program with the addition of food supplements, exercise, or drugs have been excluded to avoid their interference with the regulation inflammatory markers.

      Results

      Out of 967 articles found, 76 were selected, including a total of 6742 patients with a mean age of 44.0 ± 3,3 years and a BMI of 33 ± 6.6. The observation period ranged from 3 weeks up to two years with an average weight loss per month of 1.1 kg. In most of the studies, it was found that weight loss caused a significant reduction of plasma level of inflammatory cytokines although three studies did not see any effect.

      Conclusions

      In obese and overweight subjects weight loss, induced both by energy-restricted diet or surgery, is a determinant factor for reducing the level of pro-inflammatory markers. Hypocaloric diet has an anti-inflammatory effect independent of the diet composition which can play an important role in the prevention of chronic diseases.

      Graphical abstract

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