Effect of RYR, MFA and MFB on serum lipids and antioxidant activity in rats

      Summary

      Background & aims

      This study was designed to test the lipid-lowering and antioxidative activities of red yeast rice (RYR), in comparison to its components monasfluore A (MFA) and monasfluore B (MFB) in cholesterol-fed rats.

      Methods

      The control group only received cholesterol supplemented diet, whereas the other three groups received the same diet added with 1% RYR, or 1% MFA, or 1% MFB.

      Results

      All treatments (RYR, MFA and MFB) reduced the atherogenic index. Simply, MFA and MFB are statistically but slightly more effective than RYR (55–58% reduction versus 46% reduction). The MFA and MFB significantly lowered the atherogenic index compared to the RYR and control (P < 0.05). The hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activity was significantly lower in the MFA group than in the RYR and MFB groups (P < 0.05), while the hepatic ACAT activity was significantly decreased by all treatments with respect to the high cholesterol fed group (P < 0.05). The overall potential of the antioxidant system was significantly enhanced by the RYR, MFA and MFB supplements as the plasma and hepatic TBARS levels were lowered while the hepatic superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione levels were increased by the treatments in comparison with the high cholesterol fed rats (P < 0.05).

      Conclusions

      Collectively, these results suggest that the supplementation of RYR, MFA and MFB increased antioxidant activity in rats. Furthermore, we observed that all treatments promoted the excretion of neutral and acidic sterols (P < 0.05), that could contribute to explain lower plasma and, hepatic cholesterol levels found in treated animal.

      Keywords

      Abbreviations:

      HDL (high density lipoprotein), HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA), ACAT (acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase), RYR (red yeast rice), MFA (monasfluore A), MFB (monasfluore B), AIN (American Institute of Nutrition), BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene), DTNB (5,5′-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid)), GR (glutathione reductase), GSH (glutathione), GSSG (glutathione disulfide), MDA (malondialdehyde), NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), TBA (thiobarbituric acid), TBARS (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances), TNB (2-nitro-5-thiobenzoic acid), GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase)
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